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PrerequisitesThe “N buffer”: compound nouns with case markings
-sını, -sına, -sında, -sından
The n buffer with pronouns, location words
What’s the difference between ki and ‑ki?
In Turkish, there are both a word and a suffix (word ending) that have the same sound, “ki.” This can cause confusion for language learners because both the word “ki” and the suffix ‑ki make complex sentences by putting together two clauses. But there are important differences between the two.
Although they sound the same, “ki” and ‑ki have different origins. The Turkish suffix ‑ki has been around since the time period of Old Turkic, which is as far back as historical record goes for Turkic languages.
The word “ki,” however, was imported from the Persian language.
In this lesson, we will focus on the suffix ‑ki, and not on the Persian-origin “ki” that is written as a separate word
Using the ‑ki suffix
There are a lot of ways to use ‑ki in Turkish. You can combine ‑ki with possessive pronouns to talk about something that belongs to a specific person. You can also combine ‑ki with words for specific times such as “yarın” (tomorrow) to describe something based on when it happens. You can also combine ‑ki with the locative ‑da/de/ta/te ending to describe specific based on its location.
In each case, the ‑ki suffix marks the end of a relative clause. In other words, the ‑ki acts as a signal that the word or words before it are being used to describe a noun. The noun that is being described by the ‑ki relative clause is sometimes stated explicitly after ‑ki, as in the phrase, “yarınki toplantı” (the meeting that is tomorrow). In other cases, the noun being described is not stated, as in “benimki” (the one that is mine).
Using ‑ki with possessives
One way to use ‑ki is to add it to a possessive pronoun (benim, senin, onun, bizim, sizin, onların) to describe something in terms of who it belongs to.
To begin with, let’s look at an example*:
Onun aklı başka yerde. Benimki başka yerde.
His mind is in a different place. Mine is in a different place.
(i.e., we are thinking about different things)
In this example, “benimki” means “mine” (that is, “my mind”) Instead of “benimki,” we could have said “benim aklım.” However, since the previous sentence already said the word “aklı” (his mind), using the ‑ki suffix makes it shorter and removes redundancy.
In the following table, we’ve added ‑ki to each of the personal pronouns in the possessive form.
You’ll notice that in each of these examples, the ‑ki always has the “i” vowel and does not change with vowel harmony. In fact, the only words where the vowel in ‑ki changes are after the words “dün” (yesterday), “gün” (day), and “bugün” (today).
Personal pronouns with ‑ki
|Benimki||The one that is mine|
|Seninki||The one that is yours|
|Onunki||The one that is his/hers|
|Bizimki||The one that is ours|
|Sizinki||The one that is yours (pl. or formal)|
|Onlarınki||The one that is theirs|
Yeni bilgisayar almak lazım. Benimki eskidi.
We need to buy a new computer. Mine has gotten old.
Herkes değişik yanıt verdi. Onunki çok etkileyiciydi.
Everyone gave a different response. His was very impressive.
Onlarınki büyük bir aşk hikâyesiydi.
Theirs was a great love story.
Onunki gerçek bir başarı öyküsü.
His was a true success story.
Which one is yours?
Seninki bayat, benimki taze!
Yours is stale, mine is fresh!
Enteresan bir aileydi bizimki.
Ours was an interesting family.
How are yours (i.e., your family)?
Bir de bizimki çok hareketli.
Oh, and ours (our child) is very active.
Other possessive forms with ‑ki
Besides personal pronouns, you can also use the ‑ki ending with the possessive form of other nouns, such as a name or the question word “kim” (who):
|Hepimizinki||All of ours|
|Mehmet’inki||The one that is Mehmet’s|
|İstanbul’unki||The one that is Istanbul’s|
Şimdi siz söyleyin, gerçek başarı kiminki?
Now you tell me, whose is the real success?
El değiştirirler. Ahmet’inki Mehmet’in olur.
They’ll change hands. Ahmet’s will become Mehmet’s.
Çocukların şovu bitti. Ajda’nınki başladı.
The children’s show has ended. Ajda’s has started.
Edirne’de ancak 3 – 5 taksi var. En ünlüsü de Mustafa’nınki.
There are only 3 – 5 taxis in Edirne. The most famous one is Mustafa’s.
Ama Londra ve New Jersey projeleri 2000’de gerçekleşiyor. İstanbul’unki bekliyor.
But the London and New Jersey projects are happening in 2000. Istanbul’s is waiting.
Kaloriferlerimiz yanmıyor… apartmanda kimseninki yanmıyor. Hepimizinki birdenbire bozuldu.
Our radiators are not heating… nobody’s in the apartment building are working. All of ours suddenly stopped working.
Kiminki peki? Onunki mi, benimki mi?
Whose is it then? His or mine?
Describing location with ‑ki
Another way to use ‑ki is to describe something based on its location. It’s common to use ‑ki to differentiate objects, people or places from those in other locations. It is similar to saying, “the one over here,” or, “the one over there” in English.
When you are describing the location of something, you almost always have to add the ‑da/de/ta/te ending before adding the ‑ki ending.
Location words with ‑daki/deki/taki/teki endings
|Öndeki||The one that is in front|
|Arkadaki||The one that is behind|
|Yandaki||The one that is on the side|
|Aradaki||The one that is in the middle|
|Alttaki||The one that is below|
|Üstteki||The one that is above|
|Dışarıdaki||The one that is outside|
|İçerideki||The one that is inside|
Places with ‑daki/deki/taki/teki endings
|Ankara’daki||The one that is in Ankara|
|İstanbul’deki||The one that is in İstanbul|
|Evdeki||The one that is at home|
|Sokaktaki||The one that is in the street|
|Buradaki||The one that is here|
|Oradaki||The one that is over there|
Example sentences with ‑daki/deki/taki/teki
Tarifteki şeker miktarı bence az.
The amount of sugar in the recipe is low in my opinion.
Bu boyuttaki araç için çok iyi.
It’s very good for a vehicle of this size.
Rize’deki arkadaşlarımla devamlı görüşüyorum.
I still keep in touch with my friends who are in Rize.
Dışarıdaki hayat çok hızlı.
Life outside is very fast.
Tarihteki korsan öykülerini çoğumuz okuduk.
Most of us have read the pirate stories from history.
Bu konudaki düşüncelerimi aktardım.
I have conveyed my thoughts on this subject.
Dışarıdaki gelişmeler kontrolümüz dışında.
The developments happening on the outside are beyond our control.
Ancak temeldeki sorun, samimiyet.
However, the fundamental problem is sincerity.
Makarnayı aşağıdaki tarife göre pişirin.
Cook the noodles according to the recipe below.
İhracattaki artış yüzde 13.1 oldu.
The increase in exports was 13.1 percent.
Bu konudaki çalışmalarımız sürüyor.
Our work on this subject continues.
Exceptions: location words without ‑da/de/ta/te
For most descriptive words that refer to a location, you need to add the ‑da/de/ta/te ending before adding ‑ki. However, there are four words for describing locations that can directly receive the ‑ki ending without the ‑da/de/ta/te ending: “öte,” “beri,” “yukarı,” and “aşağı.” It is possible to put ‑ki directly on each of these four words. It is also possible to put the ‑da/de/ta/te ending first before ‑ki.
Of the four location words that have this exception, “öteki” (the other one / the farther one) is the only one that is commonly used. For the other three (“beri,” “yukarı,” and “aşağı”), it is rare to use them without ‑da/de/ta/te.
Location words that can use ‑ki with or without ‑da/de/ta/te
|Öteki / Ötedeki||The other one / The one that is farther away|
|Beriki / Berideki||The latter / The one that is closer|
|Yukarıki / Yukarıdaki||The one that is above|
|Aşağıki / Aşağıdaki||The one that is below|
Ben de yukarıki izlenimlerimi anlattım.
I also told about my above impressions.
O yazarın öteki kitaplarını da okurum.
I also read that writer’s other books.
Atlantik’in öteki yakasında tepki gecikmedi.
Reaction did not delay on the other side of the Atlantic.
Esnek ol. Öteki seçenekleri yokla.
Be flexible. Check out the other options.
Biri kırmızı, öteki beyaz.
One is red, the other is white.
Öteki illerde de artış var.
There is also an increase in other provinces.
Belki öteki dünyada buluşurlar.
Perhaps they will meet in the afterlife (lit., the other world).
Using ‑ki with words for time
There are a number of Turkish words used for describing the time that something happens. For most of these words, you can add the ‑ki ending directly to the descriptive word. You can use this to differentiate events based on when they happen.
For example, “yarınki toplantı” means “tomorrow’s meeting,” or in other words, “the meeting that will happen tomorrow.”
Examples: time words with ‑ki
|Yarınki||The one that is tomorrow|
|Şuanki / Şu anki||The one that is now|
|Şimdiki||The one that is now|
|Her zamanki||The one that always happens|
|Önceki||The one that was before|
|Sonraki||The one that comes after|
|Geçen haftaki||The one that was last week|
|Bu ayki||The one that is this month|
|Geçen seneki||The one that was last year|
|Bu yılki||The one that is this year|
Yarınki yarış çok zevkli olacak.
The race tomorrow is going to be very enjoyable.
Yarınki toplantıda adayları belirleyeceğiz.
We will determine the candidates at the tomorrow’s meeting .
Hakan yarınki maçta forma giymeyecek.
Hakan will not play in tomorrow’s match .
Yarınki konumuz ilk yardım.
Our topic tomorrow is first aid.
Her zamanki işini yapacak.
He will do his usual job.
O zamanki adı Salmidores’ti.
Its name at that time was Salmidores.
Bir önceki albüm daha duyguluydu.
The previous album was more emotional.
Bu 10 sene önceki durum.
This is the situation from 10 years ago.
Önceki gün yine görüştük.
We met again the previous day.
Bu çadırın önceki modelini kullanıyorum.
I’m using the previous model of this tent.
Fırtınadan önceki sessizlik gibi.
It’s like the calm before the storm.
Bir sonraki duruşma 7 Şubat’ta.
The next hearing is on February 7th.
Bu seneki senaryo bence daha güzel.
This year’s scenario is nicer in my opinion.
Geçen seneki uyum bu sezon yok.
Last year’s coherence is not there this season.
Fuarın bu yılki misafir ülkesi Hindistan.
The fair’s guest country this year is India.
Geçen yılki daha iyiydi.
Last year’s was better.
Bu yılki hedefi 5 milyon dolar.
This year’s target is 5 million dollars.
İşte bu akşamki konumuz bu.
This is our topic for this evening.
Dün akşamki bölüm beni şoke etti.
Last night’s episode shocked me.
Bu akşamki bölümde sürpriz gelişmeler var.
There are some surprising developments in this evening’s episode.
Ben şu an öğrenciyim. bu da benim şu anki mesleğim.
I’m currently a student. This is my current profession.
Güvenlik çok önemli. Şu anki en büyük sorun bu.
Security is very important. This is the current biggest problem.
3-4 ay öncesine kadar vardı. Şu anki stoklarını bilmiyorum.
It was there until 3-4 months ago. I don’t know about the current stock.
Şu anki durum vahim.
The current situation is dire.
Şu anki rakamlar bizi tatmin etmiyor.
The current numbers are not satisfying to us.
Şimdiki çocuklar çok akıllı.
Kids these days are very smart.
Korkuyorum, çaresizim. Şimdiki durumumuz bu.
I’m scared, I’m helpless. This is our current situation.
Şimdiki çözüm geçici.
The present solution is temporary.
Bu haftaki maç büyük önem taşıyor.
This week’s match is of great importance.
Bu haftaki konuğum Hülya Nüfusçu.
My guest this week is Hülya Nüfusçu.
Bu ayki sonuçlara bakacağım.
I will look at this month’s results.
Bu ayki konu gayet eğlenceliydi.
This month’s topic was quite entertaining.
Exception words with vowel harmony
For the words “dün,” “gün,” and “bugün,” you can use the ‑ki ending like with other words for time. However, when you add ‑ki to one of these three words, the ‑ki ending follows vowel harmony and becomes ‑kü.
|Dünkü||The one that was yesterday|
|Bugünkü||The one that is today|
|Salı günkü||The one that is/was on Tuesday|
Bugünkü şartlarda konuşuyorum.
I’m saying this based on today’s situation.
O açıdan bugünkü toplantı çok önemliydi.
From that perspective, today’s meeting was very important.
Dünkü rakamlar çok çarpıcıydı.
Yesterday’s numbers were very striking.
Dünkü bölüm gerçekten çok güzeldi.
Yesterday’s episode was really beautiful.
Salı günkü bölüm de güzeldi.
Tuesday’s episode was also good.
Artık çarşamba günkü kupa maçına bakıyoruz.
Now we’re looking [ahead] to Wednesday’s cup match.
Ben hâlâ ilk günkü heyecanla takip ediyorum.
I’m still watching with the same excitement that I had on the first day (lit. first day’s excitement).
Using ‑daki/deki/taki/teki with time words
In most cases, if you are using ‑ki to specify the time that something happens, you will not use it with the ‑da/de/ta/te ending. However, there are some cases where time words can be used with either ‑ki by itself or ‑daki/deki/taki/teki.
Doların son iki aydaki düşüşü yüzde 17.16 oldu.
The decrease in the dollar over the last two months was 17.16 percent.
İlk 7 aydaki açık 718 milyon dolar.
The deficit in the first 7 months was 718 million dollars.
Son bir haftadaki zamlar bunlar.
These are the price increases that happened in the last week.
Fakat ilk 7 haftadaki performansı çok kötüydü.
However, his performance in the first 7 weeks was very poor.
Birinci haftadaki sonuçları çok merak ediyorum.
I am very curious about the results from the first week.
Bu son 25 yıldaki en düşük sayı.
This is the lowest number in the last 25 years.
Using ‑ki and ‑daki with the “n buffer”
Up to this point, we’ve seen that the ‑ki suffix can be used with possessives, words for time and words for location.
In all of these types of sentences, the suffix ‑ki can be followed by one of the case endings: the accusative case ‑i, the dative case ‑e, the locative case ‑de, the ablative case ‑den or the genitive case (possessive) ‑in ending.
If you add one of these case endings after ‑ki, you need to first add a letter “n” (which we call the “n buffer”).
Example sentences with “n buffer” after ‑ki
Gerçek, masaldakine benzemiyor!
The truth is not like what you see in fairy tales!
Sizin inançlarınız da onlarınkine benzemiyor.
And your beliefs do not resemble theirs.
Evet, o resimdekinden daha tatlı birisin.
Yes, you are cuter than the one in the picture.
Yemekler çok güzel. Evimizdekinden daha iyi.
The food is very good. It’s better than what is at home.
Karşınızdakinin sözünü kesmeyin.
Don’t interrupt the person in front of you.
Sizinkini çok beğendim.
I really liked yours.
Ben de benimkini kattım.
And I added mine.
Merakla sıradakini bekliyoruz.
We are eagerly awaiting the next one.
Sell what you have (lit. what’s in your hand)!
Using the “n buffer” before ‑daki/deki
In addition to this, you can also use ‑ki after a ‑da/de ending that has the “n buffer” in cases where the ‑da/de ending follows the compound noun ending or the third person possessive ending ‑(s)ı/i/u/ü.
Kullanıcı Adı dışındaki tüm bilgileri değiştirebilirsiniz.
You can change all the information except the username.
İnsanlar, şehir merkezindeki havuza atlamışlar.
People have jumped into the pool in the city center.
Ön koltukların arasındaki konsol diğer bir yenilikti.
The console between the front seats was another innovation.
Altı ay altındaki bebeklere uygulanmaz.
It does not apply to babies under six months.
Kahvehaneye 40 yaşın üstündekiler geliyor. 40 yaşın altındakiler gelmiyor.
Those over 40 come to the coffeehouse. Those under 40 don’t come.
Gençler, heykel çevresindeki parklarda sohbet ediyorlar.
Young people chat in the parks around the statue.
Cadde üzerindeki evler pahalı.
The houses on the street are expensive.
Kasım ayındaki tarih henüz netlik kazanmadı.
The date in November has not yet been finalized.
Petrol fiyatlarındaki yükseliş yüzde 5’i buldu.
The increase in oil prices has reached 5%.
Yastık altındaki çok para var.
There is a lot of money under the pillow (i.e. stored at home rather than in a bank).
Mart ayındaki artış yüzde 20.5 oldu.
The increase in March was 20.5%.
Two “n buffers” in one word
Finally, you can have cases where one word has two “n buffers:” one before ‑ki and one after ‑ki:
Examples with two “n buffers”
Herkes karşısındakini anlayabilir.
Everyone can understand the person in front of them.
Hemen yanındakine işaret etti.
He pointed to the one right next to him.
Nazlı arabanın içindekine baktı.
Nazlı looked at what was inside the car.
He said what was on his mind.
Kafasının içindekini bilemeyiz.
We can’t know what’s in his head.
This lesson is a prerequisite for:Story: Sleep Deprived Soldiers
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