Intermediate “kendi” forms

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Beginner “kendi” forms

Using kendi with nouns
Using kendi with verbs

Past tense verbs

-dı/di/du/dü or -tı/ti/tu/tü
Asking yes or no questions

Simple Present Tense or Aorist

12 uses of the aorist

The “N buffer”: compound nouns with case markings

-sını, -sına, -sında, -sından
The n buffer with pronouns, location words

“Kendi” forms

In the beginner “kendi” forms article, the following “kendi” forms were covered:

In this article, these additional “kendi” forms will be covered:

Using “kendi” as a noun

Grammar form:

  • Kendi + (personal ending) + (n) + i    (verb)
  • Kendi + (personal ending) + (n) + e    (verb)
  • Kendi + (personal ending) + (n) + den    (verb)
  • Kendi + (personal ending) + (y) + le    (verb)
  • Kendi + (personal ending)    için    (verb)

When the “kendi” word is used in one of these grammar forms, it operates much like the word “self” in English. In the same way that in English we can say that you found yourself, took something from yourself or do something with yourself, the word “kendi” can be used like other nouns by taking normal noun endings. In these forms, the personal ending is the same as the ending that is used for possessing a noun. However, in the third person form (he/she), the personal ending “-si” is usually dropped altogether. If it is dropped when using the “-i,” “-e,” and “-den” endings, there will be an “n” buffer put in its place instead of the usual “y” buffer for basic nouns.

    Examples for “forgiving oneself”

    (Ben) kendimi affettim. I forgave myself.
    (Sen) kendini affettin. You forgave yourself.
    (O) kendi(si)ni affetti. He/she forgave himself/herself.
    (Biz) kendimizi affettik. We’re forgave ourselves.
    (Siz) kendinizi affettiniz. You forgave yourselves.
    (Onlar) kendilerini affetti(ler). They forgave themselves.
    Example sentences
    Sen sadece kendini kandırıyorsun.
    You are only fooling yourself.
    (A line from a poem)

    İnsan kendini nasıl geliştirir?
    How does one better oneself?
    (Title of blog post)

    Kendimi sokakta yatmaya hazırlıyorum.
    I’m preparing myself to sleep on the streets.
    (Title of news story)

    Dizi ünlüleri kendilerini nasıl garantiye alıyor?
    How do TV show celebrities secure themselves (for a continuing role)?
    (Title of newspaper column)

    Kendine güveniyor musun? Test et!
    Do you trust yourself? Take the test!
    (Title of post on news site)

    Buzdolabı raflarını kendinize doğru çekin.
    Pull the refrigerator shelves toward yourself.
    (Excerpt from instruction manual)

    Kendinden korkuyor.
    He’s afraid of himself.
    (Title of humorous video of a monkey)

    Gözyaşlarımızı kendimizden bile sakladık.
    We hid our tears even from ourselves.
    (Excerpt from book description)

    Kendiyle barışık insanı herkes sever.
    Everyone loves a person who is at peace with themselves.
    (Title of column piece)

    Suriye kendisiyle savaşıyor
    Syria is at war with itself.
    (Title of photo gallery)

    Reina katliamcısı kendisi için idam cezası istedi.
    The Reina massacre perpetrator requested the death penalty for himself.
    (Title of news story)

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Using the emphatic “kendi kendi” as a noun

Grammar form:

  • Kendi kendi + (personal ending) + (n) + i    (verb)
  • Kendi kendi + (personal ending) + (n) + e    (verb)
  • Kendi kendi + (personal ending) + (n) + den    (verb)
  • Kendi kendi + (personal ending) + (y) + le    (verb)
  • Kendi kendi + (personal ending)    için    (verb)

For each of the usages of “kendi” as a noun (see section above), the phrase can be made more emphatic by repeating the word “kendi.” So, while “kendini affetti” means “he forgave himself,” “kendi kendini affetti” has the same meaning but with a connotation of surprise, as though it was expected for him to forgive someone else. Most of the time, these “kendi kendi” forms (except for “kendi kendine”) do not get used in daily conversation but only in formal speech or writing. In addition to this basic meaning, the phrase “kendi kendine” can have a meaning of doing something all by oneself. This form will be explained in more detail in its own section below.

    Example sentences
    Kendi kendimi rezil ettim.
    I brought disgrace on myself
    (Quote from news story)

    Tedavi görmedim fakat kendi kendimi tedavi ediyorum.
    I haven’t had therapy but I’m treating myself.
    (Quote from pop star)

    Belki de hayatımda ilk kez kendi kendimi şaşırttım.
    This might be the first time in my life that I surprised myself.
    (Title of news story)

    Kendi kendimize gol attık.
    We scored a goal against ourselves.
    (Quote from news story)

    Oh be, en büyük düşmanımdan kurtuldum, dedi kendi kendine.
    “Phew, I just got rid of my biggest enemy,” he said to himself.
    (Excerpt from book)

    İnsanlar neden kendi kendilerine konuşur?
    Why do people talk to themselves?
    (Title of post on science website)

    Yeter ki kendi kendinizden ayrılmayın. Kendi kendinizi bırakmayın.
    Whatever you do, don’t separate from yourself. Don’t abandon yourself.
    (Excerpt from blog post)

    Kendi kendinle çelişiyorsun.
    You’re contradicting yourself.
    (Excerpt from forum post)

    Kendi kendisiyle evlendi!
    She married herself!
    (Title of news story)

    Kedi kendi kendiyle dövüşüyor.
    Cat fights with itself.
    (Title of humorous video)

    Kendi kendisi için sesler çıkartır.
    [The baby] makes noises for his/her own self.
    (From list of development milestones for babies)

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Using “kendi kendine” to mean all by oneself

Grammar form:

  • Kendi    kendi + (personal ending) + (n) + e    (verb)

This grammar form is used in many of the same contexts as the basic kendi grammar form for doing things oneself (e.g. “kendim yapıyorum,” which means, “I’m doing it myself”). This “kendi kendine” form, however, is used to emphasize that an action was done alone when the normal expectation in Turkish culture is for the action to include multiple participants. It is important to note at this point that there are many actions that would be perfectly normal to do by oneself in a Western culture but would be surprising if it was done alone in Turkish culture.

    Examples for “doing (it) all by oneself”

    (Ben) (onu) kendi kendime yapıyorum. I am doing it all by myself.
    (Sen) (onu) kendi kendine yapıyorsun. You are doing it all by yourself.
    (O) (onu) kendi kendi(si)ne yapıyor. He/she is doing it all by himself/herself.
    (Biz) (onu) kendi kendimize yapıyoruz. We are doing it all by ourselves.
    (Siz) (onu) kendi kendinize yapıyorsunuz. You are doing it all by yourselves.
    (Onlar) (onu) kendi kendi(leri)ne yapıyorlar. They are doing it all by themselves.
    Example sentences
    Evde kendi kendimize de zayıflayabiliriz.
    We can also get thin by ourselves at home.
    (Excerpt from post on informational website)

    Cildinizi kendi kendinize muayene edin.
    Examine your skin all by yourself.
    (Caption in photo gallery on news website)

    Kendi kendinize Office programlarını öğrenin.
    Learn Office programs all by yourself.
    (Title of news story)

    Kendi kendimize yenildik.
    We lost (the match) all by ourselves.
    (Title of sports news report)

    Facebook’um neden kendi kendine paylaşım yapıyor?
    Why does my Facebook make posts all by itself?
    (Title of post to Facebook help forum)

    Kendi kendime doğum yaptım.
    I gave birth all by myself.
    (Title of news story)

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This lesson is a prerequisite for:

To be doing

-ıyor olacak
-ıyor olmalı
-ıyor olmalıydı
-ıyor olsaydı

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It depends on

-masına bağlı
-dığına bağlı
-acağına bağlı
-a bağlı

Have done

-mış olacak
-mış olacaktı
-mış olmak
-mış olur

Expressing desire

-ası geldi
-ası geliyor
-ası var

Breaking and forming habits

-ar olmak
-maz olmak

As much as

-dığı kadar
-abildiği kadar

Advanced “değil” forms

-mış değil
-ıyor değil
-acak değil

About to

-acak oldu
-acak oluyor
-acak olsa
-acak olsaydı

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