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PrerequisitesTo be or not to be
Changing ç/p/t/k to c/b/d/ğ
Emphasis in questions
The most common ending for present tense
The continuous present tense ending is the first verb ending that a Turkish language learner needs to learn. This is because it is the tense that Turkish speakers use the most.
The ending is called “continuous” because it is used for actions that are happening now or actions that are ongoing. In linguistic terms, it is not a true “tense” ending at all. Rather, it is something called the imperfective or continuous aspect. But don’t worry ‑ you don’t need to understand what that means to get started.
Forming verb endings
Since the Turkish language is agglutinative, most grammatical forms are word endings, especially verb endings. In order to add an ending to a verb, you usually need to find what is called the verb “stem.” To get the stem of a verb, all you have to do is find the dictionary form of a verb and remove the “mak” or “mek” from the end of the word. For example, “yapmak” means “to do,” so removing the ending “mak” leaves us with the verb stem, “yap.”
Forming the continuous present tense verb ending
- Verb stem + i/ı/u/ü + yor + (personal ending)
After determining the stem of a verb, there is an extra step that needs to happen for the continuous present tense that does not happen for other verb endings. In this step, we check to see if the last letter of the verb stem is a vowel. If the last letter is a vowel, that vowel will get removed before continuing on with adding the verb ending. For example, if the verb we’re using is “istemek” (to want), the verb stem is normally “iste,” but for the continuous present tense, we will remove the vowel at the end of the verb stem to make it “ist.”
After we determine the verb stem, we add an i-type vowel according to the last vowel remaining in the verb stem. Then, after the i-type vowel, we add the ending, “-yor,” which is one of the few endings in Turkish that does not change vowels according to vowel harmony. The “-yor” ending is then followed by the personal ending, which changes based on who is doing the action. See the table below for the different personal endings for the verb “gelmek” (“to come”).
|(Ben) geliyorum||I am coming|
|(Sen) geliyorsun||You are coming|
|(O) geliyor||He/she/it is coming|
|(Biz) geliyoruz||We are coming|
|(Siz) geliyorsunuz||You (plural or formal) are coming|
|(Onlar) geliyor(lar)||They are coming|
There are a few things to notice about the personal endings for the present continuous tense. First, you may notice that these personal endings are exactly the same as the personal endings in the basic “to be” sentence structure. Note also that since the “-yor” ending always remains the same, the personal endings for this tense will always have only the “u” vowel to match the “o” in “-yor.” Finally, the inclusion of the pronoun (“ben”, “sen”, “o”, “biz”, “siz”, or “onlar”) is optional. Likewise, the “-lar” ending is optional, especially when the pronoun “onlar” is included in the sentence.
The pain is passing.
Mehmet is alive!
(Note that “yaşamak” is an example of a verb that needs to have a vowel removed before adding the continuous present tense ending)
You (plural or formal) understand.
(“Anlamak” also gets a vowel removed)
They are waiting.
(“Beklemek” also gets a vowel removed)
I miss [it].
(Note in this example that when the “e” is removed from “özlemek,” the i-type vowel that gets chosen for the verb ending is “ü” in order to match the final remaining vowel, “ö.”)
Handling irregular verbs
“Gitmek” and “etmek”
There are two verbs in Turkish that require a consonant change before adding a verb ending that starts with a vowel. These two verbs are “gitmek” (to go, to leave) and “etmek” (“to do”). For both of these verbs, the “t” changes to a “d” before adding the “-iyor” ending or any other verb ending that begins with a vowel. For example, “ben gidiyorum” means, “I am going.”
“Etmek” is a helper verb that mainly gets used in combination with words of foreign origin in order to make them into Turkish verbs. Sometimes these foreign words remain as separate words as in, “devam etmek” (to continue). Sometimes, however, the “etmek” helper verb and the foreign word get combined into one word as in “hissetmek” (to feel). So, while there are actually only two verbs that change “t” to “d” before verb endings, it may seem like there are many verbs that have this exception because of the many variants of “etmek.”
He/she/it is leaving.
Biz devam ediyoruz.
We are continuing.
I feel bad.
“Yemek” and “demek”
There are two more verbs that require special handling for word endings that begin with a vowel, including the “-iyor” ending. These verbs are “yemek” (to eat) and “demek” (to say). Since the verb stems of these verbs both only have one vowel and the vowel is at the end of the verb stem, the vowel will still get removed, but the i-type vowel on the verb ending will still be “i,” matching the vowel that was removed.
Ben yemek yiyorum.
I am eating food.
O, “harika!” diyor.
He says, “wonderful!”
Yes or no questions
- Verb stem + i/ı/u/ü + yor mu + (y) + (personal ending)?
- Verb stem + i/ı/u/ü + yorlar mı?
Forming yes-no questions with the continuous present tense is similar to how simple yes or no questions are formed with the basic “to be” sentence structure. In both, a form of the yes-no question word, “mu” is used.
Examples with “gelmek” (to come)
|(Ben) geliyor muyum?||Am I coming?|
|(Sen) geliyor musun?||Are you coming?|
|(O) geliyor mu?||Is he/she/it coming?|
|(Biz) geliyor muyuz?||Are we coming?|
|(Siz) geliyor musunuz?||Are you (plural or formal) coming?|
|(Onlar) geliyor(lar) mı?||Are they coming?|
How to form yes-no questions
To make a yes-no question with the continuous present tense, we will start by adding the same “-ıyor” ending just as before. However, before adding the personal ending, we will add a space followed by the yes-no question word “mu.” After the “mu” word, a “y” buffer is added before the first person singular and plural endings (“mu-y-um” and “mu-y-uz”). The exception to this is in the third person plural. In this case, the personal ending (“-lar”) is added directly to end of the “-ıyor” ending before adding the “mı” question word.
Note that the yes-no question word changes its vowel according to i-type vowel harmony. In this tense the vowel in the “-yor” ending is always the same, so the matching i-type vowel will always be “u” for all cases except in the third person plural. In the third person plural, the last vowel before the question word is the “a” in “-lar,” so the matching i-type vowel will be “ı.”
Ben ölüyor muyum?
Am I dying?
(Title of news story)
Doğru yapıyor muyum?
Am I doing [it] right?
(Question from student about homework)
İngilizce biliyor musun?
Do you know English?
Are we winning?
Siz gidiyor musunuz?
Are you (plural or formal) leaving?
Are they waiting?
This lesson is a prerequisite for:With / By / And
Using ile with pronouns
Using "neyle" and "kiminle"
12 uses of the aorist
Handling irregular verbs
Asking yes or no questions
Using -(y)a with pronouns
nereye, buraya, şuraya, oraya
When to use it
burayı, şurayı, orayı, nereyi
bunu, şunu, onu
bundan, şundan, ondan