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PrerequisitesContinuous present tense
Handling irregular verbs
Asking yes or no questions
Changing ç/p/t/k to c/b/d/ğ
benim, senin, onun
Using “ile” as a word ending or as a separate word
The word “ile” is a grammatical word similar to the English word “with.”
It often gets shortened and used as a word ending instead of a separate word. The full “ile” form is rare in everyday speech and normally only occurs in formal speech and writing.
- Noun ile
- Noun ending with a consonant + la/le
- Noun ending with a vowel + y + la/le
To make the full form of ile, simply add the word “ile” after a noun. In its full form, the vowels in “ile” do not change according to vowel harmony.
To make the short form, first check to see if the noun ends in a vowel (a, ı, o, u, e, i, ö, or ü) or not. If it ends in a vowel, add a “y” sound before you add the rest of the ending.
Next, add either ‑la or ‑le according to e-type vowel harmony.
Let’s take a look at some basic examples.
|Full “ile” form||Shortened form||English translation|
|Uçak ile||Uçakla||By plane|
|Araba ile||Arabayla||By car|
|Mehmet ile||Mehmet’le||With Mehmet||Çocuklar ile||Çocuklarla||With [the] kids|
|Çanta ile||Çantayla||With [a/the] bag|
|Çantalar ile||Çantalarla||With [some/the] bags|
|Sırt çantası ile||Sırt çantasıyla||With [a/the] backpack|
|Sırt çantam ile||Sırt çantamla||With my backpack|
One thing to notice in these examples is that there are a few word endings that can be added onto nouns before adding the ‑(y)la/le ending. You can add the plural (‑lar/ler) ending, the compound noun (‑sı/si/su/sü or ‑ı/i/u/ü) ending or a possessive ending before adding ‑(y)la/le.
Using “ile” to say “with,” “by,” or “and” in Turkish
There are several ways to use “ile” forms. Sometimes it is similar to the English word “with,” but sometimes it translates to “by” or “and.”
Usage #1: Instrumental
You can use “ile” to say that someone is doing an action using an object as a tool or instrument:
I am going by plane.
Usage #2: Accompaniment
You can use “ile” to say that someone is doing an action along with other people or objects:
Aziz ile geziyorum.
I am exploring with Aziz.
(Excerpt from blog post)
Sırt çantamla geziyorum.
I go exploring with my backpack.
(Excerpt from a news story about a hiker)
Usage #3: Solidarity
In some cases, you can use “ile” to express emotional support, unity and/or solidarity:
I am with you (e.g. I am here for you).
Usage #4: Conjunction
In some cases, you can use “ile” instead of “ve” as a conjunction to mean “and.” This usage of “ile” shows up often in storytelling:
Leyla ile Mecnun
Layla and Majnun
(Main characters of a traditional love story similar to Romeo and Juliet)
Using “ile” with pronouns
When you use the word “ile” with a pronoun, you normally use the possessive form of that pronoun. For example, to say “with me,” you would say “benim ile” or “benimle” for short. However, speakers in some Turkish accents shorten it to “benle” in fast, casual speech (but it is not considered “proper”).
Also, if a pronoun has the plural ‑lar/ler ending on it, the possessive ending does not get added before “ile.”
- Pronoun + possessive ending ile
- Pronoun + possessive ending + la/le
- Pronoun + -(n)lar/ler ile
- Pronoun + -(n)lar/ler + la/le
Pronouns with “ile”
|Sizinle||With you (plural or formal)|
|Onlarla||With them/those||Bununla||With this|
|Bunlarla||With these||Şununla||With this/that|
Here are some more examples of sentences with pronouns with an “ile” form.
I am with you (e.g. I am here for you).
Come with me.
Don’t worry about us (literally, don’t struggle with us).
Using “ile” with question words “ne” (what) and “kim” (who)
You can use the “ile” forms with the words “ne” and “kim” to ask questions about how people are doing things.
- Ne ile
- Ne + y + le
- Ne + ler ile
- Ne + ler + le
- Kim + in ile
- Kim + in + le
- Kim + ler ile
- Kim + ler + le
You can use the word “ile” with the question word “ne” (what) to ask how (i.e. with what object) someone is doing something. To use “ile” with “ne,” simply say “ne ile,” or, “neyle.” If you add the plural ‑ler ending to “ne” (“neler”), you are expecting the answer to be plural. We don’t have a grammatical equivalent to “neler” in English, but it would be like saying, “with what things?”
If you want to ask, “with whom?” you will do this using the “kim” (“who?”) question word. Since “kim” is technically a pronoun, you first have to add the possession marker ‑in to “kim” like you did for the other pronouns. And as we saw with “neler,” if you add the plural ‑ler ending to “kim” (“kimler”), you are expecting the answer to be plural ‑ that is, multiple people. This would be like asking, “with which people?”
What are you busy with?
İnsanlar nelerle uğraşıyor?
What kinds of things are people dealing with?
(Title of opinion piece)
Who am I speaking with?
(A common question when answering the phone)
Sen kiminle dans ediyorsun?
Who are you dancing with?
(Title of a Turkish movie)
Who do we work with?
(Title of a web page showing business partnerships)
Verbs that go with “ile”
There are a lot of verbs in Turkish that you normally have to use together with “ile” in order for the sentence to make sense. For some of these, the English translation has the word “with” in it, so it makes sense to English speakers. For other verbs (like “tanışmak”), English doesn’t use the word “with,” but you still have to use an “ile” form in Turkish.
In the table below, we’ve put together some of the most common examples of verbs that need to have “ile” in the sentence:
Common verbs that go with “ile”
|Benimle tanışmak||To meet me|
|Benimle anlaşmak||To agree with me|
|Benimle evlenmek||To marry me|
|Benimle konuşmak||To talk with me|
|Benimle görüşmek||To meet with me|
|Benimle oynamak||To play with me|
|Benimle ilgilenmek||To take care of me|
|Benimle uğraşmak||To struggle with me|
Using “ile” to say “in between”
There is one more way to use “ile” in everyday speech. You can use “ile” forms with the word “arasında” to mean “in between.”
- Noun ile noun arasında
- Noun + la/le noun arasında
In Turkish, when you say that something is in between two other things, you use the word “arasında” (in between) together with the two objects and the “ile” form.
Kaşla göz arasında
Between eybrow and eye
(Turkish expression meaning “very fast”)
Sıfırla bir arasında
Between zero and one
(Title of a theatre show)
Felipe Melo ile Diego Ribas arasında kavga
[A] fight between Felipe Melo and Diego Ribas
(Title of a news story about a Fenerbahçe ‑ Galatasaray soccer match)